Thanjāvūr (Tanjore) Painting is an important form of classical South Indian painting native to the town of Thanjāvūr in Tamil Nadu, India. The art form dates back to about 1600 AD, a period when the Nayakas of Thanjāvūr  encouraged art—chiefly, classical dance and music—as well as literature, both in Telugu and Tamil. Tanjore paintings are known for their surface richness, vivid colors and compact composition.

Essentially serving as devotional icons, the themes of most of these paintings are Hindu gods and goddesses, as well as saints. Episodes from Hindu tradition are drawn upon as elaborations of the main figure or figures placed in the central section of the picture.

Tanjore paintings are panel paintings done on solid wood planks and traditionally use plant based colors for the painting in addition to gold foil and semi-precious stones.